Dorchester, Guy Carleton, first Baron


Dorchester, Guy Carleton, first Baron
(1724-1808)
   Dr Birth and parentage, 29; enters army, 29; lieutenant-colonel, 30; Wolfe's friendship for, 30; military preceptor to Duke of Richmond, 30; Wolfe secures him for quartermaster of Quebec expedition, 31; entrusted with important tasks, 32; wounded at Battle of the Plains, 32; served under Albemarle at siege of Havana, 32; appointed to succeed Murray at Quebec, 32; finds divisions in the country, 33; has difficulty with his Council, 34; forwards petition of Jesuits, 35; issues proclamation relinquishing all fees, 35; his despatch on the subject, 36; has the Walker case on his hands, 37; dismisses Irving and Mabane from the Council, 39; his views in regard to English and French laws, 41, 43; on state of the colony, 44-47; anticipates revolt of American colonies, 50; endeavours to check legal abuses, 51; orders release of small debtors, 52; issues new ordinance respecting administration of justice, 54, 55; opposed to creation of House of Assembly, 55; his return to England, 57; becomes governor-general on Murray's resignation, 1768, 57; absent in England four years, 59; replaced by Cramahé, 59; his report on manufactures of Canada, 59; took important part in framing Quebec Act, 63; his evidence before House of Commons, 67; sails for Canada, 75; his marriage, 75; sends troops to Boston on requisition of General Gage, 78; receives news of Benedict Arnold's attack on St. John's, 83; forwards troops and proceeds to Montreal, 85; calls out militia, 86; returns to Quebec, 89; gives guinea to Canadian soldier, 89; hurries back to Montreal, 91; applies to Gage for two regiments, 92; his despatch explaining fall of St. John's and impossibility of defending Montreal, 103; reaches Quebec, 112; orders all to leave the city who would not help in its defence, 114; his courage and watchfulness, 124; his estimate of the killed in the attack on Quebec, 131; great source of strength to his followers, 133; moves out to attack enemy, who took to flight, 138; makes search in surrounding country for fugitives in distress, 139; makes arrangements to pursue the retreating American army, 144; meets Burgoyne at Quebec, 144-145; his operations successful, 147; Lord George Germain's enmity to, 149; plans to improve the defences of the country, 150-151; re-establishes the Courts of Quebec, 151; defeats the Americans in naval engagement on Lake Champlain, 153-157; refuses to attack Ticonderoga--his reasons, 157-158; retires with army in winter quarters, 159; superseded in charge of next year's campaign by General Burgoyne, 163; his authority limited to Canada, 163; his bitter replies to Germain's despatches, 164-166; indignant at transfer of command to Burgoyne, he resigns, 169; no friction between him and Burgoyne, 174; Burgoyne's testimony, 174; makes forced levy of militia to recruit Burgoyne's army, 178; his correspondence with Hamilton in the West, 179; his appointments to judgeships, 183; objects to appointment of Livius and Owen as judges, 184; his protests against improper appointments, 185; calls out one-third of militia, 187; constitutes committee of Council, 187; his last despatch to Germain, 188; returns to England, 189; sent to America as commander-in-chief and commissioner, 193; arrives at New York, 195; instructed to make pacific representations to Congress, 200; applies for recall on hearing that complete independence is to be granted to the colonies, 203; his anxiety to protect the Loyalists, 206; appoints commissioners for exchange of prisoners, 207; the force under his command, 208; anxious to return home but urged to remain at New York, 212; writes to governor of Nova Scotia on behalf of the Loyalists, 214; his correspondence largely occupied with Loyalist affairs, 218; his last despatch from New York, 219; supports petition of Loyalist widows for pensions, 219; created Baron Dorchester, and accepts governorship of Canada, 221; difficulties of his position, 221; his acquaintance with Haldimand, 222; Shelburne's opinion of value of his influence, 222; his reception at Quebec very cordial, 223; extent of his commission, 224; brings out William Smith as chief-justice, 224; his correspondence with Lord Sydney, 225; appoints committee to consider state of the law, 225, 227; also committees on commerce, police, and education, 226-230; negotiations with Silas Deane on subject of Chambly Canal, 230; anxiety in regard to Indian question in the west, 231; announces intention of visiting Nova Scotia, 235; recognizes necessity for a more popular form of government, 237; visits Loyalists in western Canada, 238; transfers Jesuit church at Montreal to Anglicans, 241; his efforts to increase efficiency of militia, 243, 246; receives propositions from Vermont and Kentucky looking to separation from other American states, 244-247; declines to allow French minister to United States to visit Canada, 248; receives draft of bill for better government of province, 248; thought introduction of parliamentary institutions premature, 258, 259; sends home lists of proposed legislative councillors, 258; not pleased with Simcoe's appointment, 259; urges claims of Sir John Johnson, 259; sails for England, 269; returns to Canada, 271; opens second session of Lower Canada Legislature, 276; calls out militia, 277; fully expects war with United States, 282; his speech to the Miami Indians, 282; speech not approved by home government, 283; expresses desire to resign, 284; gets Alien Act passed, 288; reports improved condition of affairs, 291; wages war on fees and perquisites, 291; surrenders his own fees, 292; opposes holding of appointments by absentees, 292; his relations with Simcoe, 293-296; a believer in centralized power, 294; not being sustained by home government, resigns, 297; points of difference with Simcoe, 302; meets his last Parliament, 303; returns to England, 303; receives addresses of regret, 303; his character, 304; his sympathy with French-Canadians, 305; saves Canada to the Empire, 306; wreck of the frigate in which he sailed, 306; lands at Percé, proceeds to Halifax, and sails from there to England, 306; his death, 307; his descendants, 307. S His connection with the Constitutional Act, 2; not favourable to creation of separate province of Upper Canada, 3; goes to England, 5; orders names of Loyalists who declared themselves before treaty of 1783 to be registered, 70; does not support Simcoe's views in regard to Indian department, 127; controls military operations in Upper Canada, 131; his bold speech to deputation of Indians, 133, 146; recommends Simcoe to fortify post on the Miami, 134; proceedings not approved by home government, 142; his resignation, 142; disapproves of Simcoe's plans for defence of Upper Canada, 206; supersedes purchasing agent appointed by Simcoe, 212; his relations with Simcoe, 228. WM Chief of staff to Wolfe, 75; as governor of Canada, wins affection of Canadians, 75; establishes fortified camp on island of Orleans, 108; lands near Pointe-aux-Trembles and takes a number of prisoners, 125; wounded in battle of the Plains, 199. Sy His Canadian policy, 67, 82. Bk His defence of Quebec and liberal policy towards French-Canadians, 36. E His character as governor, 1. Hd Leases St. Maurice forges, 62; his failure to enlist Canadian militia, 111; governor of Canada, his defence of Quebec, 112, 121; succeeded in military command by Burgoyne, 112; resignation of, 113; Haldimand's opinion of, 119; Captain Schank writes to, 159; pulls down houses during siege, 187; proposal to have him supersede Haldimand at Quebec, 188; Haldimand writes to, 189; raises Loyalist corps, 253; returns to Quebec as governor, with title of Lord Dorchester, 314; his opinion of Dr. Mabane, 315; his relations with Haldimand, 330-332. W Thomas Carleton, a brother of, 5.
   Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Lucas, History of Canada; Bradley, The Making of Canada; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Development; Shortt and Doughty, Documents Relating to Constitutional History of Canada.

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